## Electronics (Mike Jaroch)

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### N

#### NAND

A logic function of A and B that is true if either A or B is false [13].
 Keyword(s): NAND

#### NAND CIRCUIT

A combination of a NOT function and an AND function in a binary circuit that has two or more inputs and one output. The output is logic 0 only if ALL inputs are logic 1; it is logic 1 if ANY input is logic 0 [13].

 Keyword(s): NAND CIRCUIT

#### NATURAL FREQUENCY

See RESONANT FREQUENCY [9].
 Keyword(s): NATURAL FREQUENCY

#### NATURAL HORIZON

The line-of-sight horizon [10].
 Keyword(s): NATURAL HORIZON

#### NAUTICAL MILE

The length of a minute of arc of a great circle of the earth (6,076 ft) [18].
 Keyword(s): NAUTICAL MILE

#### NEAR SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT

An orbit in which the satellite rotates close to but not exactly at the same speed as the earth [17].

 Keyword(s): NEAR SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT

#### NEGATION

The process of inverting the value of a function or variable [13].
 Keyword(s): NEGATION

#### NEGATIVE ALTERNATION

That part of a sine wave that is below the reference level [2] [10] [12].
 Keyword(s): NEGATIVE ALTERNATION

#### NEGATIVE CLAMPER

A circuit that clamps the upper extremity of the output waveshape to a dc
potential of 0 volts [9].

 Keyword(s): NEGATIVE CLAMPER

#### NEGATIVE ELECTRODE

A terminal or electrode having more electrons than normal. Electrons flow
out of the negative terminal of a voltage source [1].

 Keyword(s): NEGATIVE ELECTRODE

#### NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

Feedback in which the feedback signal is out of phase with the input signal.
Also called DEGENERATIVE FEEDBACK [8].

 Keyword(s): NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

#### NEGATIVE LOGIC

The form of logic in which the more positive voltage level represents a logic 0,
FALSE, or LOW and the more negative voltage represents a logic 1, TRUE, or HIGH [13].

 Keyword(s): NEGATIVE LOGIC

#### NEGATIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT

A characteristic of a semiconductor material, such as silver sulfide, in which resistance to electrical current flow decreases as temperature increases [1] [4]
[7].

 Keyword(s): NEGATIVE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT

#### NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE ELEMENT

A component having an operating region in which an increase in the applied voltage increases the resistance and produces a proportional decrease in current. Examples include tunnel diodes and silicon unijunction transistors [11].

 Keyword(s): NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE ELEMENT

#### NETWORK

A combination of electrical components. In a parallel circuit it is composed of two or more branches [1].

 Keyword(s): NETWORK

#### NEUTRAL

(1) In a normal condition, hence neither positive nor negative. A neutral object has a normal number of electrons (the same number as protons) [1]. (2) The teletypewriter operation where current flow represents a mark and no flow represents a space [17].

 Keyword(s): NEUTRAL

#### NEUTRALIZATION

The process of counteracting or "neutralizing" the effects of interelectrode
capacitance [8].

 Keyword(s): NEUTRALIZATION

#### NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

If an unbalanced outside force acts on a body, the resulting acceleration is directly proportional to the magnitude of the force, is in the direction of the force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the body [15].

 Keyword(s): NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

The condition that exists when an electrical source or secondary of a
transformer is operated without an electrical load [2].

#### NODE

The fixed minimum points of voltage or current on a standing wave or antenna [10].
 Keyword(s): NODE

#### NOISE

(1) In reference to sound, an unwanted disturbance caused by spurious waves that originate from man-made or natural sources [10]. (2) In radar, erratic or random deflection or intensity of the indicator sweep that tends to mask small echo signals [18].

 Keyword(s): NOISE

#### NOISE FIGURE

The ratio of output noise to input noise in a receiver [18].
 Keyword(s): NOISE FIGURE

#### NOISE LIMITER

Circuit that clips the peaks of the noise spikes in a receiver [17].
 Keyword(s): NOISE LIMITER

#### NOISE SILENCER

See NOISE LIMITER [17].
 Keyword(s): NOISE SILENCER

#### NOISE SUPPRESSOR

See NOISE LIMITER [17].
 Keyword(s): NOISE SUPPRESSOR

#### NONDEGENERATIVE PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIER

A parametric amplifier that uses a pump signal frequency that is higher than twice the frequency of the input signal [11].

 Keyword(s): NONDEGENERATIVE PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIER

#### NONDIRECTIONAL

See OMNIDIRECTIONAL [10].
 Keyword(s): NONDIRECTIONAL

#### NONLINEAR DEVICE

A device in which the output does not rise and fall in direct proportion to the
input [6] [7] [12].

 Keyword(s): NONLINEAR DEVICE

#### NONLINEAR IMPEDANCE

An impedance in which the resulting current through the device is not
proportional to the applied voltage [12].

 Keyword(s): NONLINEAR IMPEDANCE

#### NONLUMINOUS BODIES

Objects that either reflect or diffuse light that falls upon them [10].
 Keyword(s): NONLUMINOUS BODIES

#### NONRESONANT LINE

A transmission fine that has no standing waves of current or voltage [10].
 Keyword(s): NONRESONANT LINE

#### NONTRIP-FREE CIRCUIT BREAKER

A circuit breaker that can be held in the ON position during an overcurrent condition [3].

 Keyword(s): NONTRIP-FREE CIRCUIT BREAKER

#### NOR

A logic function of A and B that is true if both A and B are false [13].
 Keyword(s): NOR

#### NOR GATE

An OR gate that is followed by an inverter to form a binary circuit in which the output is a logic 0 if ANY of the inputs is a logic 1 and the output is a logic 1 only if ALL the inputs are a logic 0 [13].

 Keyword(s): NOR GATE

#### NORMAL

The imaginary line perpendicular to the point at which the incident wave strikes the reflecting surface. Also called the perpendicular [10].

 Keyword(s): NORMAL

#### NOT CIRCUIT

A binary circuit with a single output that is always the opposite of the input. Also called an INVERTER CIRCUIT [13].

 Keyword(s): NOT CIRCUIT

#### NPN

An NPN transistor is formed by introducing a thin region of P-type material between two regions of N-type material [7].

 Keyword(s): NPN

#### NULL

On a polar-coordinate graph, the area that represents minimum or 0 radiation [10].
 Keyword(s): NULL

#### NUMBER

(1) A mathematical entity that may indicate quantity or amount of units. (2) Loosely, a numeral. An abstract mathematical symbol for expressing a quantity. In this sense, the manner of representing the number is immaterial. Take 26, for example; this is its decimal form - but it could be expressed as a binary (base 2), octal (base 8), or hexadecimal (base 16) number [13].

 Keyword(s): NUMBER

#### NUMBER REPRESENTATION

The representation of numbers by agreed sets of symbols according to
agreed rules [13].

 Keyword(s): NUMBER REPRESENTATION

#### NUMBER SYSTEM

Loosely, a number representation system. Any system for the representation of
numbers (see POSITIONAL NOTATION) [13].

 Keyword(s): NUMBER SYSTEM

#### NUMERAL

(1) A discrete representation of a number. For example, twelve, 12, XII, 11002 are four different numerals that represent the same number. (2) A numeric word that represents a number [13].

 Keyword(s): NUMERAL

#### NUTATING

Moving an antenna feed point in a conical pattern so that the polarization of the beam does not change [18].

 Keyword(s): NUTATING

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