Global History & Geography for 14-15 Yr olds USA) (Thomas Caswell)

Note: You may download the entries for this glossary here. If you wish to use this in your own Moodle course, first make a blank glossary and then follow the instructions for importing glossary entries here.

Thomas describes this database: "This 800+ term glossary is based on the New York State curriculum for 9th and 10th grade social studies. Called "Global History and Geography," this curriculum culminates in a high-stakes Regents examination that all students must pass in order to graduate and earn a high school diploma."

Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

Page:  1  2  3  4  (Next)


Galilei, Galileo

(1564-1642) Italian astronomer. One of the founders of Europe's scientific revolution, one of his main contributions is the application of the telescope to astronomy. He was able to prove Copernicus’ heliocentric model correct.


Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries , and proved that Copernicus' theory to be correct.

Gandhi, Mohandas

(1869-1948) Nationalist leader in India, who called for a non violent revolution to gain his country’s freedom from the British Empire.

Ganges River

Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.

Garibaldi, Guiseppe

(1807-1882?) Military leader whose Red Shirt army liberated most of southern Italy, before conquering the northern section. He was instrumental in the unification of Italy.

Gautama, Siddhartha

(563?-483?BCE), Indian philosopher and the founder of Buddhism. Siddhartha was born into the Brahmin caste, and by all account led a luxurious lifestyle. However, he was troubled by the human misery that he saw around him everyday. Upon reflection, he deduced that desire was the root caused of all suffering. Also known as the Buddha.

general will

Name Enlightenment thinker Jean Jacques Rousseau uses to describe majority rule.

genetic engineering

The process of altering life forms by manipulating their genetic structure.

Genghis Khan

(1167?-1227) One of the Mongol’s greatest leaders and founder of the Mongol Empire.


The killing of all the people from a ethnic group, religious group, or people from a specific nation.


Members of the upper class in some social class systems.

geocentric model

Theory of the universe that states the earth is the center, and that the sun revolves around it.


One of the west African Trading Kingdoms. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert.


Term given to poor areas of town where Jews were sent during World War II.


A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry.

Global North

Economic and political designation given to industrialized countries such those in North America and Western Europe, and also including Japan, and Australia. These nations have high standards of living and a high literacy rate.

Global South

Economic and Political designation given to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and South America, many of which were former colonies during European Imperialism. These post colonial nations face low literacy rates, massive unemployment, little to no industrialization, and are generally economically dependent on their former colonial masters.

Glorious Revolution

Political revolution in Great Britain in 1688 that put William and Mary on the throne, while limiting the power of the monarchy and making Parliament supreme. This event marks the beginning of a constitutional monarchy in England.

Gold Coast

Name given to the parts of the west coast of Africa by European imperialist due to the amount of gold found in the region.

Golden Age

The first age of the world, an untroubled and prosperous era during which people lived in ideal happiness.

Gorbachev, Mikhail

(1931- ), leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His policies of Perestroika and Glasnost, which aimed at revitalizing the Soviet Union contributed to the downfall of communism.


The office, function, or authority of a governing individual or body.

Great Depression

(1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world’s economy due to the United State’s stock market crash of 1929, the overproduction of goods from World War I, and decline in the need for raw materials from non industrialized nations. Results in millions of people losing their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat. World trade also declined as many countries imposed protective tariffs in an attempt to restore their economies.

Great Leap Forward

The economic program designed to increase farm and industrial output though the creation of communes. Communes are similar to Soviet collectives in that groups of people live and work together on government owned farms and in government owned industry.

Great Purge

The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

A imperialistic system founded by Japan consisting of other Asian countries during the early 20th century. Japan reduced its members to puppet nations, taking their raw materials and using them as new markets.


The cultural mixing of both ancient Greek and Roman traditions.

Greek column

Fluted column used in many of their buildings, and copied throughout the world today.

Green Revolution

Throughout the 20th century, scientists worked on improving agriculture, especially in areas with high populations. Some of the technologies developed included better irrigation systems so farmers could get water to their crops. New machinery was built to handle larger production and to take the burden of agriculture work off of humans. New chemical fertilizers and pesticides were created to increase food production, and new varieties of grains and livestock were developed also for greater production. The Green Revolution has had only limited success. The high costs associated with many of these new technologies have kept the small farmer from taking advantage of them.

greenhouse gas

A gas such as carbon dioxide, ozone, or water vapor that are a factoring the warming of the Earth’s atmosphere.

Guevara, Che

(1928-1967) Latin American guerilla leader. In the mid 20th century Guevara was instrumental in helping Fidel Castro lead the Cuban Revolution. He was later killed in Bolivia while trying to lead a revolution there.


An association of merchants or craftspeople in medieval Europe, formed to make regulations and set standards for a particular trade or craft.


Chemical compound that burns very quickly. Used in weaponry.

Gupta Dynasty

(320-550 C.E.)Ruling family in India during its golden age. Responsible for many achievements.

Gutenberg, Johannes

(1400?-1468) German printer and European pioneer in the use of movable type.

Page:  1  2  3  4  (Next)