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Jiang Jieshi

(1887-1975) Leader of the Guomindang, or Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II. He lost control of China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup a rival government. Also known as Chang Kai Shek.


Effort in God’s service waged by Muslims in defense of the Islamic faith.

joint stock company

A company that sells shares to investors who share in the profits and losses.

Joseph II

The son of Maria Teresa and a enlightened despot who ruled over the Austrian Empire.

Juárez, Benito

(1806-72) President of Mexico from 1861 to 1863 and 1867 to 1872. He was responsible for many reforms including reducing the power of the Catholic Church.


Judaism is the oldest known monotheistic religion still practiced in the world today. Its fundamental teachings have been influential and are the basis for more recently developed religions such as Christianity and Islam. Judaism teaches that there is one God who is the creator of all things. after the Hebrew exodus from Egypt, many Hebrews began to lose their faith in God. During this time, Moses went atop Mount Sinai and returned with two stone tablets containing laws that all Hebrews needed to follow. These laws, recorded in the Exodus 20:3-17, became known as the Ten Commandments.


Relating to a system that administers justice.

Justinians Code

A law code created by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian about 530 CE. It was a revision of the old Roman law system.