Global History & Geography for 14-15 Yr olds USA) (Thomas Caswell)


Note: You may download the entries for this glossary here. If you wish to use this in your own Moodle course, first make a blank glossary and then follow the instructions for importing glossary entries here.

Thomas describes this database: "This 800+ term glossary is based on the New York State curriculum for 9th and 10th grade social studies. Called "Global History and Geography," this curriculum culminates in a high-stakes Regents examination that all students must pass in order to graduate and earn a high school diploma."

Browse the glossary using this index

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L

L'Ouverture, Toussaint

(1743?-1803) Revolutionary leader who is responsible for ousting France from Haiti during the Latin American Revolutions in the early 19th century.

Laissez-Faire Economics

This was an economic philosophy begun by Adam Smith in his book, Wealth of Nations, that stated that business and the economy would run best with no interference from the government. This economic system dominated most of the Industrial Revolution.

Landlocked

Entirely, or almost entirely surrounded by land.

Lao Tze

(570-490 BCE?) Chinese philosopher credited with originating Taoism/Daoism. His teachings were collected and published as the Tao-te Ching.

Last Supper, The

A famous Renaissance painting by Leonardo Da Vinci.

Latin American

The Geopolitical designation for Central and South America and the Caribbean Islands which were settled by the Spanish.

Latin American Revolutions

Political revolutions in various Latin American countries beginning in the late 18th century. These revolutions were aimed at overthrowing the European powers that controlled these nations. Many were successful, but few achieved the success of the American Revolution.

latitude

Lines of equal distance measured north and south of the equator.

Laws of the Twelve Tables

A system of laws. Some of the features of this system include, men being equal under the law, having the right to face their accusers, and being considered innocent until proven guilty.

lay investiture

The creation of a Bishop by a non church official, usually a feudal lord.

League of Nations

A multinational peace keeping organization which began as an idea of United States President Woodrow Wilson following the first World War. The Treaty of Versailles created a League with over 40 different countries joining. The United States was not one of them. The League of Nations was to be an international body that would settle future problems through negotiations instead of warfare. The member nations were to work cooperatively through economic and military means to enforce its decisions. However, since the United States did not join, the League never achieved its intentions. While the League did attempt to halt the aggressiveness of Hitler's Germany, their inherent weakness prevented them from stopping World War II.

legislative

Relating to a system that makes laws.

Lenin, Vladimir

(1870-1924) Russian revolutionary leader and political theorist. He was the first leader of the new communist government of Soviet Russia. Later, he was also the first leader of the Soviet Union, which was composed of most of the republics of the former Russian Empire.

Leonardo da Vinci

Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper.

Leviathan

A book written by Thomas Hobbes describing his theory that an absolute government was the only means of balancing human interests and desires with their rights of life and property.

liberty

In the political sense, this usually means freedom.

line of demarcation

A boundary established by Pope Alexander VI on in 1493 to define the spheres of Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the New World. Part of the Treaty of Tordesillas.

Lister, Joseph

(1827-1912) English surgeon who discovered that germs cause post operative infections. He then insisted doctors use antiseptics, substances that kill germs, on their hands and instruments before surgery. This process greatly reduced the number of deaths caused by infection after surgery.

Little Red Book

A book circulated throughout China during the reign of Mao Zedong, which contained his political philosophy for China. It was required reading in all schools.

Lloyd George, David

(1863-1945) British Prime Minister from 1916 to 1922, he led Great Britain through World War I. He was one of the formulators of the Treaty of Versailles.

Locke, John

(1632-1704) English philosopher and political theorist. He wrote Two Treaties on Government which explained that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty, and Property, and that the purpose of government was to protect these rights.

Long March

March the Mao Zedong and his Communist Party underwent to avoid being captured and killed by China’s Nationalist Party.

Long Parliament

(1640 – 1660) English Parliament which met off and on for twenty years due to religious and civil problems. Occurs during the English Civil War.

longitude

The curving distance east or west of the prime meridian that stretches from the North Pole to the South Pole.

Lorenzo de' Medici

MediciLorenzo di Piero de' Medici (January 1, 1449 - 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the height of the Italian Renaissance. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent (il Magnifico) by his contemporary Florentines, he had a very active life and was an avid patron of the arts; he was also fascinated by technology. However, he was also a very religious man, one who deeply loved his country.

Lorenzo's support for artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Andrea del Verrocchio and Michelangelo Buonarroti was instrumental in the development of Florence as the epicenter of 15th century Renaissance Europe. Although his financial straits made it impossible for him to commission many works himself, he saw to it that they received commissions from other patrons.

Louis XIV

(1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.

Louis XVI

(1754-1793) King of France between 1774 and 1792. He was overthrown during the French Revolution and later beheaded.

Loyola, Ignatius

(1491-1556) Founded the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Jesuits. He worked to combat the Protestant Reformation by providing strong Catholic leadership to monarchs across Europe.

Luther, Martin

(1483-1546) Theologian and religious reformer who started the Reformation with his 95 Theses which protested church corruption, namely the sale of indulgences.


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