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Jewish holy men charged with conducting religious services, ensuring that Jewish laws are observed, and serving as a spiritual guide for the community.


Discrimination or prejudice based on race.


The ninth month of the Muslim calendar. All Muslims must fast during daylight hours, except the very young or sick.


Hindu epic story about the hero Rama who was the incarnation of the god Vishnu.

Rasputin, Grigory

(1872-1916) Russian peasant and self-proclaimed holy man. He was friends with the ruling Romanov family, and sometime advisor to Czarina Alexandra. His advice was on of the factors leading to the Russian Revolution.

raw materials

Various materials found in nature used in manufacturing such as wood, coal, and oil.


To reject a belief or withdraw something previously said.


The re-conquest of Spain by the Christians after centuries of Islamic domination.

Red Guard

Militaristic group of students in China who brutalized anyone who criticized Mao’s government.

Red Shirts

Nationalistic group/army created and led by Guiseppe Garibaldi to end foreign control of Italy during the 19th century.

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