US Educational Terms Glossary (Garland Green)


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Glossary of Educational Terminology Garland found while surfing the web.

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A

authentic task

School assignment that has a real-world application. Such tasks bear a strong resemblance to tasks performed in nonschool settings (such as the home an organization or the workplace) and require students to apply a broad range of knowledge and skills. Often they fill a genuine need for the students and result in a tangible end product.

Average Class Size

The number of students in classes divided by the number of classes. Because some teachers, such as reading specialists, have assignments outside the regular classroom, the average class size is usually larger than the pupil-teacher ratio. (Ed Source)

Average Daily Attendance (ADA)

The total number of days of student attendance divided by the total number of days in the regular school year. A student attending every school day would equal one ADA. Generally, ADA is lower than enrollment due to such factors as transiency, dropouts, and illness. A school district's revenue limit income is based on its ADA. (Ed-data)

B

Basic Aid

The minimum general-purpose aid that is guaranteed by the state's Constitution for each school district in a state. A basic aid district is one in which local property taxes equal or exceed the district's revenue limit. These districts may keep the money from local property taxes and still receive constitutionally guaranteed state funding. (Ed Source)

Behaviorism

A theory suggesting that learning occurs when an environmental stimulus triggers a response or behavior. Based on classical conditioning theory behaviorism applies to educational practices that reward performance behaviors to encourage repetition of those behaviors. Rote memorization and drill-and-practice instruction are supported by behaviorist theory.


Benchmark

  • Statement that provides a description of student knowledge expected at specific grades ages or developmental levels. Benchmarks often are used in conjunction with standards. (See standards.)

  • A detailed description of a specific level of student achievement expected of students at particular ages, grades, or developmental levels; academic goals set for each grade level. (Ed Source)

benchmark performances

Performance examples against which other performances may be judged.

Bilingual Education

An in-school program for students whose first language is not English or who have limited English skills. Bilingual education provides English language development plus subject area instruction in the student's native language. The goal is for the child to gain knowledge and be literate in two languages. (Ed Source)

Block Scheduling

Instead of traditional 40- to 50-minute periods, block scheduling allows for periods of an hour or more so that teachers can accomplish more during a class session. It also allows for teamwork across subject areas in some schools. For example, a math and science teacher may teach a physics lesson that includes both math and physics concepts.

Bond Measure

A method of borrowing used by school districts to pay for construction or renovation projects. A bond measure requires a 55 percent majority to pass. The principal and interest are repaid by local property owners through an increase in property taxes. (See also parcel tax.) (Ed Source)


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