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Categorical Aid

Funds from the state or federal government granted to qualifying schools or districts for specific children with special needs, certain programs such as class size reduction, or special purposes such as transportation. In general, schools or districts must spend the money for the specific purpose. All districts receive categorical aid in varying amounts. This aid is in addition to the funding schools received for their general education program. (Ed Source)


An instructional technique in which the teacher breaks a complex task into smaller tasks models the desired learning strategy or task provides support as students learn to do the task and then gradually shifts responsibility to the students. In this manner a teacher enables students to accomplish as much of a task as possible without adult assistance.


Council of Chief State School Officers


National Research Center on English Learning and Achievement


A state-issued license certifying that the teacher has completed the necessary basic training courses and passed the teacher exam.

Certificated/credentialed Employees

School employees who are required by the state to hold teaching credentials, including full-time, part-time, substitute, or temporary teachers and most administrators. A teacher who has not yet acquired a credential but has an emergency permit or a waiver to teach in the classroom is included in the count. The requirements for a fully credentialed teacher include having a bachelor's degree, completing additional required coursework, and passing the CBEST. (Ed-data and Ed Source)

Charter Schools

Publicly funded schools that are exempt from many state laws and regulations for school districts. They are run by groups of teachers, parents, and/or foundations. (Ed-data and SARC glossary)


Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement

Class Size Reduction

A state-funded program for kindergarten through third grade classes to ensure that there are no more than 20 students per teacher. A separate program supports some smaller classes for core subjects in ninth grade. (Ed-data)

Classified Employees

School employees who are not required to hold teaching credentials, such as bus drivers, secretaries, custodians, instructional aides, and some management personnel. (Ed-data, Ed Source)

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