US Educational Terms Glossary (Garland Green)
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Theory suggesting that students learn by constructing their own knowledge especially through hands-on exploration. It emphasizes that the context in which an idea is presented as well as student attitude and behavior affects learning. Students learn by incorporating new information into what they already know.
Standards that describe what students should know and be able to do in core academic subjects at each grade level. (Ed Source
A teaching method in which students of differing abilities work together on an assignment. Each student has a specific responsibility within the group. Students complete assignments together and receive a common grade.
The required subjects in middle and high schools—usually English (literature), history (social studies), math, and science.
Center for Policy Research in Education
Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk
National Center for Research on Evaluation Standards and Student Testing
An assessment that measures what a student understands knows or can accomplish in relation to specific performance objectives. It is used to identify a student s specific strengths and weaknesses in relation to skills defined as the goals of the instruction but it does not compare students to other students. (Compare to norm-referenced assessment.)
A test that measures how well a student has learned a specific body of knowledge and skills. The goal is typically to have every student attain a passing mark, not to compare students to each other. (See norm-referenced assessment). (Ed Source)