US Educational Terms Glossary (Garland Green)

Note: You may download the entries for this glossary here. If you wish to use this in your own Moodle course, first make a blank glossary and then follow the instructions for importing glossary entries here.

Glossary of Educational Terminology Garland found while surfing the web.

Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

Page:  1  2  3  4  (Next)


Categorical Aid

Funds from the state or federal government granted to qualifying schools or districts for specific children with special needs, certain programs such as class size reduction, or special purposes such as transportation. In general, schools or districts must spend the money for the specific purpose. All districts receive categorical aid in varying amounts. This aid is in addition to the funding schools received for their general education program. (Ed Source)


An instructional technique in which the teacher breaks a complex task into smaller tasks models the desired learning strategy or task provides support as students learn to do the task and then gradually shifts responsibility to the students. In this manner a teacher enables students to accomplish as much of a task as possible without adult assistance.


Council of Chief State School Officers


National Research Center on English Learning and Achievement


A state-issued license certifying that the teacher has completed the necessary basic training courses and passed the teacher exam.

Certificated/credentialed Employees

School employees who are required by the state to hold teaching credentials, including full-time, part-time, substitute, or temporary teachers and most administrators. A teacher who has not yet acquired a credential but has an emergency permit or a waiver to teach in the classroom is included in the count. The requirements for a fully credentialed teacher include having a bachelor's degree, completing additional required coursework, and passing the CBEST. (Ed-data and Ed Source)

Charter Schools

Publicly funded schools that are exempt from many state laws and regulations for school districts. They are run by groups of teachers, parents, and/or foundations. (Ed-data and SARC glossary)


Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement

Class Size Reduction

A state-funded program for kindergarten through third grade classes to ensure that there are no more than 20 students per teacher. A separate program supports some smaller classes for core subjects in ninth grade. (Ed-data)

Classified Employees

School employees who are not required to hold teaching credentials, such as bus drivers, secretaries, custodians, instructional aides, and some management personnel. (Ed-data, Ed Source)

Closed Campus

This usually indicates that the school has one point of entry and a sign-in procedure as safety measures. It also refers to a high school that does not allow students to leave the campus for lunch or does not allow students to come and go without permission during the school day.


To place small groups of students together for instruction, especially GATE student


An instructional method in which a teacher supports students as they perfect old skills and acquire new skills.

cognitive science

A science investigating how people learn rather than what they learn. Prior knowledge and out-of-classroom experience help form the foundation on which teachers build effective instruction. Also referred to as the study of the mind.

cognitively guided instruction

An instructional strategy in which a teacher assesses what students already know about a subject and then builds on students prior knowledge. Students typically are asked to suggest a way to represent a real problem posed by the teacher. Guided questions encouragement and suggestions further encourage students to devise solutions and share the outcome with the class.

collaborative learning or cooperative learning

An instructional approach in which students of varying abilities and interests work together in small groups to solve a problem complete a project or achieve a common goal.

Community College

A two-year college, also referred to as a junior college. Anyone who is 18 years old or holds a high school diploma (or equivalent) is eligible to attend a community college. Students can transfer from community colleges to either the CSU or UC systems. (Ed Source)

Community-Based Learning

Students, faculty, administrators, and community members working together to create new learning opportunities within local communities but generally outside traditional learning institutions.

Comparable Growth

Subgroups of students in a school must improve their scores on standardized tests. They are expected to achieve 80 percent of the predominant student group's target, which is known as comparable growth.

Conflict Management

A strategy that schools use to prevent and address behavior problems by using peer counselors, mediators, or a school curriculum or program. It usually includes a set of expectations for behavior.

Consolidated Application (Con App)

The application districts can use to apply for more than 20 state and federal categorical programs, including the federal Title I program and the state School Improvement Program (SIP). Most if not all districts use the Con App to secure funding from at least some of the programs on the application. (Ed Source)


Theory suggesting that students learn by constructing their own knowledge especially through hands-on exploration. It emphasizes that the context in which an idea is presented as well as student attitude and behavior affects learning. Students learn by incorporating new information into what they already know.

Content Standards

Standards that describe what students should know and be able to do in core academic subjects at each grade level. (Ed Source

Cooperative Learning

A teaching method in which students of differing abilities work together on an assignment. Each student has a specific responsibility within the group. Students complete assignments together and receive a common grade.

Core Academics

The required subjects in middle and high schools—usually English (literature), history (social studies), math, and science.


Center for Policy Research in Education


Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk


National Center for Research on Evaluation Standards and Student Testing

criterion-referenced assessment

An assessment that measures what a student understands knows or can accomplish in relation to specific performance objectives. It is used to identify a student s specific strengths and weaknesses in relation to skills defined as the goals of the instruction but it does not compare students to other students. (Compare to norm-referenced assessment.)

Criterion-Referenced Test

A test that measures how well a student has learned a specific body of knowledge and skills. The goal is typically to have every student attain a passing mark, not to compare students to each other. (See norm-referenced assessment). (Ed Source)

critical thinking

Logical thinking that draws conclusions from facts and evidence.

Cross-Cultural Language and Development (CLAD)

A test that teachers must pass to gain credentials that qualify them to teach English to English learners. The BCLAD is a CLAD for bilingual teachers.

Curriculum (plural curricula)

A plan of instruction that details what students are to know how they are to learn it what the teacher s role is and the context in which learning and teaching will take place.

Page:  1  2  3  4  (Next)